Research Report

Comparison of Pelvic Rotation Angle and Electromyography Activity of the Trunk and Gluteus Maximus Muscles during Four Pilates Exercises

Eun-joo Jung1, Duk-hyun An2, Won-gyu Yoo2, Tae-hoon Kim3, Il-bong Park4, Jea-seop Oh2,*
Author Information & Copyright
1Department of Rehabilitation Science, The Graduate School, Inje University, Gimhae, Korea
2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Korea
3Department of Dance, College of Arts, Changwon National University, Changwon, Korea
4Department of Sports Rehabilitation, College of Social and Physical Education, Busan University of Foreign Studies, Busan, Korea
*, Jea-seop, Oh, Department of Physical Therapy, College of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Korea

© Copyright 2022, Academy of KEMA. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Apr 13, 2022 ; Revised: Apr 14, 2022 ; Revised: May 11, 2022 ; Accepted: May 12, 2022

Published Online: Jun 30, 2022



The Pilates method has recently been recommended as the best way to improve spinal stability by strengthening the trunk and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles.


In this study, we compared trunk and GM muscle activities and pelvic rotation angles during four traditional Pilates exercises.

Study design

Cross-sectional study


Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. During the four exercises, the activity of the trunk and GM muscles were measured via electromyography and pelvic rotation was measured using a smart phone-based measurement tool.


The activities of the transverse abdominis/internal oblique and external oblique muscles were highest during the leg pull front (LPF) compared to the other exercises. GM activity was significantly higher during the LPF compared to the shoulder bridge and swimming (SW), but not during the one leg kick (OLK). Multifidus (MF) activity was significantly higher during SW than during the other exercises. There were no significant differences in MF activity between the SW and OLK exercises. Pelvic rotation angle was significantly reduced during the OLK compared to the LPF (p=0.004).


We recommend the LPF exercise if the goal is increased trunk and GM muscle activity and the SW exercise if you target for increased MF activity. The OLK exercise is useful for activating the trunk and GM muscles while reducing uncontrolled pelvic movements.

Keywords: EMG activity; Gluteus maximus; Pelvic rotation angle; Pilates; Trunk muscles

Key Points

Question Pilates exercises does affect activation of trunk and gluteus maximus (GM) muscle activity and pelvic rotation angle?

Findings Pilates exercise leg pull front was showed to increase the activity of the GM, transverse abdominis/internal oblique and external oblique muscles. The pelvic rotation angle was significantly reduced during one leg kick, compared to leg pull front.

Meaning Clinicians and fitness specialists can recommend Pilates exercises such as one leg kick to activate the trunk and GM muscles as well as reducing unwanted pelvic movements.


The gluteus maximus (GM) is a powerful hip extensor and external rotator.1,2 Of the hip extensors, the GM plays an important role in functional activities of daily living, including sit-to-stand, stair climbing, and maintaining an upright posture while walking.3 However, people with decreased GM activity often have uncontrolled pelvic and lumbar movements during these activities.4 Furthermore, changes in pelvic posture can affect the length–tension relationship of the GM and reduce its stabilization capacity.5 Improving GM activation through strengthening exercises is important to prevent injury.6

The Pilates method is recognized as the best way to improve spinal stability by increasing trunk and GM muscle activity using mat exercises.7 Pilates exercises are designed to improve strength and posture with special emphasis on the trunk muscles.8,9 Bergson et al. demonstrated that variation in postural changes was due to augmented activation patterns of the multifidus (MF), GM, and oblique muscles during four Pilates exercises.10 Kim et al. also reported that three Pilates exercises significantly affected GM and MF muscle activity.11 Many studies have examined the effects of Pilates exercises on the trunk and GM muscles, but evidence for the most effective exercise for improving GM muscle activity is lacking.

Although Pilates exercises, including swimming (SW), one leg kick (OLK), shoulder bridge (SB), and leg pull front (LPF), strengthen the hip muscles, few studies have objectively quantified changes in hip strength during these exercises. Also, there is few information on lumbo-pelvic motion during Pilates exercises for the GM. This information is not well known, so it is very important for effective strengthening exercises and injuries prevention programs. Therefore, additional objective data are essential to be able to personalize GM exercises to meet patient needs.

In this study, we quantified the activity of the trunk and GM muscles and pelvic rotation angle during the OLK, SW, LPF, and SB. Our results provide valuable information about trunk and GM muscle activation during Pilates exercises without unwanted lumbo-pelvic motion and may aid clinical decision making and help personalize injury-prevention programs.



Twenty healthy women (mean age 27.53±5.97 years; mean height 163.27±5.24 cm; mean weight 48.67±6.28 kg) volunteered for this study. Individuals with known medical problems, past spinal or abdominal surgery, or episodes of back, shoulder, or hip pain requiring treatment during the previous 6 months were excluded.11 Before beginning the study, the principal investigator explained all of the procedures and the subjects provided written informed consent. The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of Inje University, Korea (INJE 2022-02-009-001).

Surface electromyography

A Delsys Trigno Wireless electromyography (EMG) system (Delsys, Boston, MA, USA) with a Trigno EMG sensor was used to collect surface EMG data. Analog signals recorded from each muscle were converted into digital signals and processed using DELSYS EMG Works acquisition software on a personal computer. The EMG signal sampling rate was set at 2,000 Hz and the band pass filter was set at 20–450 Hz. The EMG signals for each muscle were analyzed based on the root mean square (RMS). The site for each electrode was shaved and then cleaned with cotton and alcohol to reduce skin impedance. The dominant leg was determined by asking the subject to kick a soccer ball, and the kicking leg was determined to be the dominant leg.12 All participants were right-leg dominant. To record bilateral transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) activity, EMG sensors were placed at a location approximately 2 cm medial and inferior to the anterior superior iliac spines.13 For the bilateral external oblique (EO), the electrodes were placed inferiorly and laterally to the 8th rib.14 EMG sensors were attached at a location 2 cm lateral from the L5 spinous process to record bilateral MF activity.15 For the GM, the electrodes were located halfway between the greater trochanter and second sacral vertebra in the middle of the muscle belly, at an oblique angle at or slightly above the level of the trochanter.16 The maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured in a manual muscle testing posture to normalize the EMG values for each muscle.1 Data were collected for three trials for 5 s each. The first and last second were excluded and 3 s of mean EMG signal data were used as the %MVIC. The subjects rested for 1 min between trials to prevent muscle fatigue.

Smart phone-based measurement tool

To measure the pelvic transverse rotation angle, a smart phone was connected to the wooden holder of a smart phone-based measurement tool (SBMT). Previous research has shown that pelvic rotation measurements using the SMBT have excellent reliability.17 Before measuring pelvic rotation, an inclinometer application (Clinometer level and slope finder; Plaincode Software Solutions, Stephanskirchen, Germany) was calibrated by placing the SBMT on a flat surface. The base of the SBMT was located at both the anterior superior iliac and posterior superior iliac spines and the inclinometer application was used to record the pelvic rotation angle for each exercise.

Pilates exercises

Each participant performed the OLK, SW, SB, and LPF (Figure 1). All exercises were explained by a trained Pilates instructor. The subjects learned how to perform the four exercises through 10 min of instruction. The OLK exercise started with lumbar static hyperextension (e.g., maintaining a static lordotic lumbar posture for the entire exercise) with the hands placed on the mat. The subjects alternated leg flexion and extension, kicking the heel toward the buttock and then extending the leg (Figure 1). For the SW exercise, the subjects assumed a prone position, with arms extended overhead and the trunk and legs lifted (Figure 1). For the duration of each exercise, the subjects maintained their neck in alignment with the spinal column (a Pilates principle). The SB exercise used unilateral hook-lying, as described for the bilateral bridge, except that the contested lower limb remained on the table (0° at the hip and knee). The subject then pushed the foot into the table with the tested limb to raise the pelvis until 90° of knee flexion was achieved ipsilaterally (Figure 1). For the LPF exercise, the subjects assumed hip extension in the plank position (Figure 1). The subject was asked to perform a single leg lift to a predetermined target bar. The target bar was placed at the level of 10° hip extension, as measured using an inclinometer.18 The Pilates principles of body alignment, breathing control, and abdominal muscle control were emphasized throughout the session. Each subject, in random order, performed the four Pilates exercises three times for 5 s each, with a 1 min rest between trials.

Figure 1. Phases of the four Pilates exercise on a mat: (A) OLK, (B) SW, (C) SB, and (D) LPF. Abbreviations: OLK, one leg kick; SW, swimming; SB, shoulder bridge; LPF, leg pull front.
Download Original Figure
Statistical analysis

The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine that each variable was normally distributed. Muscle activity and the angle of pelvic rotation during each Pilates exercise were analyzed using a repeated measured analysis of variance (ANOVA). When necessary, post hoc analyses were performed using the paired t-test. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS ver. 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) with statistical significance set at p<0.05.


Electromyography activity of the trunk and gluteus maximus muscles

Right-side GM activity was highest during the LPF followed by the SB (p=0.016) and SW (p=0.002) exercises. The activity of the left-side TrA/IO was significantly lower during the SW exercise than during the SB (p=0.001) and LPF (p=0.006) exercises. However, right-side TrA/IO activity did not significantly differ during any of the four exercises. Bilateral MF activity was significantly lower (p=0.0001 for both) during the LPF exercise than during the SB, SW, and OLK exercises. Right-side EO activity was highest during the LPF exercise, followed by the OLK (p=0.003) and SW (p=0.003) exercises. Left-side EO activity was significantly increased during the SB compared to the SW (p=0.011) exercises (Table 1).

Table 1. Electromyography activities of each muscle tested during the four Pilates exercises. (n=20)
Muscle (%MVIC) Pilates exercise p
One leg kick Shoulder bridge Swimming Leg pull front
Rt. TrA/IO 31.33±18.74 25.42±11.16 26.00±17.68 27.23±14.05 0.047*
Lt. TrA/IO 20.32±14.56 26.36±11.49a) 15.53±8.98 34.56±18.86b) <0.001**
Rt. EO 23.19±9.59 27.12±12.03a) 19.83±9.93 37.29±14.27bc) <0.001**
Lt. EO 29.88±15.77 31.02±13.62a) 24.39±14.34 37.32±16.73 <0.01*
Rt. MF 51.22±12.54 48.48±12.85 52.03±12.71 31.29±13.06b,c,d) <0.001**
Lt. MF 42.93±14.74 39.48±13.19 44.78±17.71 15.93±4.45b,c,d) <0.001**
Rt. GM 44.59±18.63 36.09±16.30 37.02±13.86 51.72±13.91bd) <0.01*

Abbreviations: EO, external abdominal oblique; GM, gluteus maximus; IO, internal abdominal oblique; Lt, left; MF, multifidus; MVIC, maximum voluntary isometric contraction; RA, rectus abdominis; Rt, right; TrA, transverse abdominis.

Values are mean±SD.

* p<0.05.

** p<0.001.

a) Significant differences between shoulder bridge and swimming conditions.

b) Significant differences between swimming and leg pull front conditions.

c) Significant differences between one leg kick and leg pull front conditions.

d) Significant differences between shoulder bridge and leg pull front conditions.

Download Excel Table
Angle of pelvic rotation

The angle of pelvic rotation was significantly increased during the LPF exercise compared to the SW (p=0.008) and OLK exercises (p=0.004) (Table 2).

Table 2. Angle of pelvic rotation tested during the four Pilates exercise (n=20)
Pilates exercise p
One leg kick Shoulder bridge Swimming Leg pull front
Pelvic rotation angle (°) 2.44±1.36a) 4.98±2.73 3.58±1.56 6.49±3.66b,c) 0.000*

Values are mean±SD.

* p<0.05.

a) Significant differences between one leg kick and shoulder bridge conditions.

b) Significant differences between one leg kick and leg pull front conditions.

c) Significant differences between swimming and leg pull front conditions.

Download Excel Table


We compared the EMG activity of the trunk and GM muscles and pelvic rotation angle during four Pilates exercises and found that the LPF facilitates TrA/IO and GM muscle activities, while the OLK minimizes pelvic transverse rotation. This suggests that the four exercises should be recommended for selective trunk and GM muscle activation in exercise programs to minimize unwanted lumbo-pelvic motion.

During the OLK and SB movements, all trunk and GM muscles showed relatively high muscle activity (20% MVIC). Sekendiz et al. previously showed that the OLK and SB exercises increased strength and endurance of the trunk muscles in healthy women.19 In our study, participants were able to perform alternating leg flexion and extension contractions during the OLK and SB exercises without uncontrolled pelvic movements. Instability during the OLK and SB exercises causes co-contraction of all trunk and GM muscles to maintain balance. Therefore, we recommend the OLK and SB to increase trunk stabilization and GM muscle activity.

We observed significantly greater TrA/IO and EO activity during the LPF than during the other Pilates exercises. This is probably because the LPF has a smaller base of support than the other movements. As the base of support becomes unstable, more abdominal muscles are recruited to maintain balance, stability, and load on the lumbar spine. When the upper or lower limbs are lifted from the ground, the base of support and stability are decreased, and trunk stabilization muscles are contracted to maintain spinal posture.20 In accordance with this, our results demonstrate that the TrA/IO and EO were more activated during the LPF than during the other Pilates exercises.

MF activity was significantly greater during the SW than during the other Pilates exercises. There were no significant differences in MF activity between the SW and OLK exercises (p=1.000). Our results agree with Maryela et al.,21 who reported that MF activity was highest during SW among the prone Pilates exercises (SW, double leg kick, and OLK). SW is a dynamic movement in which one arm and opposite leg are lifted simultaneously. Previous studies have shown that back muscle activity gradually increases when the arms and legs are far from the axis of rotation of the lumbar spine.15,22,23 Furthermore, during SW, the MF is activated to maintain spinal alignment by resisting the torsional forces created by lifting the opposing upper and lower extremities.24 Therefore, MF activity during SW would be expected to be higher than during the other Pilates exercises because SW has a longer lever arm and requires more muscle activity to maintain spinal alignment against the greater rotational force on the lumbar spine.

We also found that GM activity was highest during the LPF, but it was not significantly different from the LPF and OLK exercises. This may be because the LPF and OLK have a smaller base of support than the other exercises.25 Because the trunk is in an unsupported position during the LPF and OLK, GM activity is increased to provide adequate support and stability.25 Therefore, GM activity would need to increase to compensate for the smaller bases of support during the LPF and OLK. Based on our results and those of previous studies, the LPF and OLK may be effective methods to increase activation of the GM.

The pelvic angle was the smallest during the OLK and largest during the LPF. The OLK has a greater base of support than the other Pilates exercises because both elbows, the lower extremities, and pelvis are on the mat. However, the LPF creates more instability because it has a smaller base of support than the other Pilates exercises, which may increase pelvic rotation by adding hip extension. The OLK had the lowest pelvic rotation angle, therefore, the OLK is recommended to reduce unwanted pelvic movements while increasing trunk muscle activity.

There were several limitations to this study. First, our results may not be generalizable to other populations because the subjects of this study were young healthy individuals. Second, these results apply only to traditional Pilates mat exercises. Third, we could not confirm whether the observed muscle activity was bilateral. Future studies should include more subjects, including patients with lower back pain.


This study investigated how four Pilates exercises affect trunk and GM muscle activity and pelvic rotation angle. Lt. TrA/IO, EO, and Rt. GM of muscle activation was the highest during LPF. Rt. TrA/IO of muscle activation was the highest in OLK. MF of muscle activation was the highest in SW. For GM Muscles, LPF and OLK exercise, and MF target are SW exercise, and if the abdominal muscle is a target, it is recommended to do LPF and OLK exercise.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.





Ethic Approval

The study received the approval of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of INJE uni-versity (No. INJE 2022-02-009-001).



Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG, Rodgers MM, Romani WA. Muscles: Testing and function with posture and pain. vol. 5 Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2005;


Neumann DA. Kinesiology of the hip: A focus on muscular actions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010; 40((2)):82-94


Anderson FC, Pandy MG. Individual muscle contributions to support in normal walking. Gait Posture. 2003; 17((2)):159-169


Willcox EL, Burden AM. The influence of varying hip angle and pelvis position on muscle recruitment patterns of the hip abductor muscles during the clam exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013; 43((5)):325-331


Buckthorpe M, Stride M, Villa FD. Assessing and treating gluteus maximus weakness -A clinical commentary. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2019; 14((4)):655-669


Distefano LJ, Blackburn JT, Marshall SW, Padua DA. Gluteal muscle activation during common therapeutic exercises. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009; 39((7)):532-540


Irez GB, Ozdemir RA, Evin R, Irez SG, Korkusuz F. Integrating pilates exercise into an exercise program for 65+ year-old women to reduce falls. J Sports Sci Med. 2011; 10((1)):105-111


Cruz-Ferreira A, Fernandes J, Kuo YL, et al. Does pilates-based exercise improve postural alignment in adult women?. Women Health. 2013; 53((6)):597-611


Moon JH, Hong SM, Kim CW, Shin YA. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise. J Exerc Rehabil. 2015; 11((3)):161-168


Queiroz BC, Cagliari MF, Amorim CF, Sacco IC. Muscle activation during four Pilates core stability exercises in quadruped position. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010; 91((1)):86-92


Kim BI, Jung JH, Shim J, Kwon HY, Kim H. An analysis of muscle activities of healthy women during pilates exercises in a prone position. J Phys Ther Sci. 2014; 26((1)):77-79


Van Deun S, Staes FF, Stappaerts KH, Janssens L, Levin O, Peers KK. Relationship of chronic ankle instability to muscle activation patterns during the transition from double-leg to single-leg stance. Am J Sports Med. 2007; 35((2)):274-281


Marshall P, Murphy B. The validity and reliability of surface EMG to assess the neuromuscular response of the abdominal muscles to rapid limb movement. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2003; 13((5)):477-489


Suehiro T, Mizutani M, Watanabe S, Ishida H, Kobara K, Osaka H. Comparison of spine motion and trunk muscle activity between abdominal hollowing and abdominal bracing maneuvers during prone hip extension. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2014; 18((3)):482-488


Arokoski JP, Kankaanpää M, Valta T, et al. Back and hip extensor muscle function during therapeutic exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999; 80((7)):842-850


Criswell E. Gluteal muscle activation during common therapeutic exercises. Introduction to surface electromyography. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2010


Jung SH, Kwon OY, Jeon IC, Hwang UJ, Weon JH. Reliability and criterion validity of measurements using a smart phone-based measurement tool for the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during single-leg lifting. Physiother Theory Pract. 2018; 34((1)):58-65


Oh JS, Cynn HS, Won JH, Kwon OY, Yi CH. Effects of performing an abdominal drawing-in maneuver during prone hip extension exercises on hip and back extensor muscle activity and amount of anterior pelvic tilt. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007; 37((6)):320-324


Sekendiz B, Altun Ö, Korkusuz F, Akın S. Effects of Pilates exercise on trunk strength, endurance and flexibility in sedentary adult females. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2007; 11((4)):318-326


Kim CR, Park DK, Lee ST, Ryu JS. Electromyographic changes in trunk muscles during graded lumbar stabilization exercises. PM R. 2016; 8((10)):979-989


Menacho MO, Obara K, Conceição JS, et al. Electromyographic effect of mat Pilates exercise on the back muscle activity of healthy adult females. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2010; 33((9)):672-678


Souza GM, Baker LL, Powers CM. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during dynamic spine stabilization exercises. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001; 82((11)):1551-1557


Plamondon A, Serresse O, Boyd K, Ladouceur D, Desjardins P. Estimated moments at L5/S1 level and muscular activation of back extensors for six prone back extension exercises in healthy individuals. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002; 12((2)):81-89


Masaki M, Tateuchi H, Tsukagoshi R, Ibuki S, Ichihashi N. Electromyographic analysis of training to selectively strengthen the lumbar multifidus muscle: Effects of different lifting directions and weight loading of the extremities during quadruped upper and lower extremity lifts. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015; 38((2)):138-144


Gallagher S, Pollard J, Porter WL. Electromyography of the thigh muscles during lifting tasks in kneeling and squatting postures. Ergonomics. 2011; 54((1)):91-102

한국연구재단 등재후보학술지 선정

KEMA학회 학술지인 'JMST(Journal of Musculoskeletal Science and Technology)'가 2020년 한국연구재단의 학술지평가에서 등재후보학술지로 선정되었습니다.

등재후보지 선정을 위해 수고하고 애써주신 모든 분들에게 감사를 드리며, 아낌없는 헌신과 협조에 감사드립니다.

이번 등재후보학술지 선정을 새로운 도약점으로 등재학술지로의 승격을 위해 저희 KEMA학회는 더욱 노력하겠습니다.

현재 JMST는 연구자들의 부담을 줄이기 위해 논문 심사료와 게재료를 받지 않고 있사오니, 많은 관심과 양질의 논문 투고를 부탁드립니다.


I don't want to open this window for a day.